Neco Literature in English answers will be available here soon free.
Loneliness is a major theme in the novel. It is the outcome of a tradition of kufi which isolates widows for a period. Three widows, dedewe, redeke and fayoyin, suffer this fate, but only for as long as they end their widowhood by the cap-picking ceremony.
However, one character who is most afflicted by loneliness is yaremi, whose marriage to her husband, ajumobi, comes to an abrupt end through his untimely death. Thereafter she is to a life of loneliness.
As a motif, "loneliness"and its associations such as 'left her alone ', 'lonely ' and solitude' permeate the novel. Yaremi is rendered lonely after the death of her husband, ajumobi. Her two daughters, segi and aura, after being given away into marriage, no longer keep her company. Her only son. Alani, now live in ibadan, and to him, kufi has become a lonely settlement at the very end of the earth
Yaremi's only companion is woya, her little grandchild.
On very cold nights, when other lucky women of kufi enjoy the company and warmth of their husbands, yaremi sprawls dejectedly on her bamboo bed, missing ajumobi and can only launch into a spate of repturous reminiscences. It becomes her habit to visit her husband's grave at least two times a day. There she sits alone and monologues her earthly problems, hoping for ajumobi's response.
For fear of losing her only companion, woya, she does everything she knows of medication, cajolling, coaxing and prayer- to get him healed of his high fever, no wonder, at the boy's sudden decision to leave with his mother for olode to enroll in school. yaremi perceive a steady positive factor in her loneliness going away.
In the end, Alani's strange pronouncement that he is going back to ibadan after his short visit to kufi, throws her into a swoon. Later when the village elder announced the punitive measure of sending her into exile for refusing all the caps, she is galvanised into resolving that it is her dead body that they will carry out kufi. She draws her strength and willpower from Almighty God and ajumobi's spirit, and braces herself for the painful continuation of her lonely days.
From Richard Wright's "How Bigger was Born, "his introduction to the novel, it is easy to infer that some of the characters in the narrative are used with symbolic intention. As far as this intention is concerned, the protagonist's symbol use is clear. According to the novelist, the birth of Bigger Thomas goes back to his childhood "and there was not just one Bigger, but many of them, more than I could count and more than you could suspect"
All these many Biggers are fused into Bigger Thomas of Native son. In other words, Bigger Thomas is a symbolic representation of the different attitudes, beliefs and reactions of black to oppressive environment in which they find themselves. Characters like Jan, Max and Mary are also used symbolically to represent the liberal white folks who see nothing wrong in the the Idea of equality of all races and the oneness of humanity. These examples and drawn from the communist party by Wright probably because communist were the most vocal and unpretentious advocates of this idea in the society depicted in the novel. He exploit the blacks, makes his wealth out of them but turns around to give them an insignificant fraction of the wealth as charity and sign of good will.
However, another important use of symbolism in the novel can be seen in the case of the insane man brought into Bigger's cell at the cook country jail. This supposedly insane man is put in jailbecause he has written a book to expose why blacks are treated badly in the country. According to the man himself, he wants to tell the president of the country how blacks like him are made to live slums, where they buy food at higher prices, where they pay tax but have no hospitals, where schools are "So crowded that they breed perverts" and where blacks are lived last but fired first.
By bringing the sane man into Bigger's cell to given expression to these shared views, the novelist demonstrates that any black man who in sane enough to challenge the white would is considered mad by the white would. Hence, the "insane man" becomes symbolic of Bigger's insanity.